Ali A. Mazrui A Third World Perspective. and 'What defines a morally good life?'. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? Next article. The situation in Muslim countries, or of Muslim media practitioners, is no different from that of the western media. It is usually contrasted with theoretical ethics and applied ethics. This paper examines Bhutan's unique development model based on a philosophy called Gross National Happiness (GNH) through tourism. Normative ethics, that branch of moral philosophy, or ethics, concerned with criteria of what is right and wrong. Ethics then in Western civilization evolved directly from the concept of the moral virtues of secular Graeco-Roman philosophy as well as Judeo-Christian morality. Implications are discussed from the viewpoints of both foreign and Chinese firms to provide a global perspective. Whether they choose to agree with Western concepts of ethics or not, understanding these concepts is important to anyone conducting their profession in this globalising world. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Theories emerging from Europe or European-based cultures are known as the Western canon of philosophy. Chris has a master's degree in history and teaches at the University of Northern Colorado. As a consequentialist, he believes it's better to first save the people closest to the door, maximizing the number of lives saved and ensuring a better result. In the field of philosophy that debates the morality of actions, or normative ethics, there are three main schools of thought. By becoming familiar with the main traditions of ethical thought, you will be able to identify clearly how you use these principles when you construct your own arguments. This field of philosophy dates all the way back to Aristotle, who argued that the human purpose was to live a life of rationality and virtue. Should I do the washing-up (even though I am tired) so my partner doesn't have to? How do we assign value to actions? Another important characteristic of Eastern and Western systems of virtue ethics is the integration of personal and professional life. Already registered? If you look at the diagram in 2.1.1, most of the words will not be new to you. Every day, you probably make dozens or even hundreds of decisions about what could be considered 'ethical' issues. So, Immanuel Kant, the deontologist, argues that they should save the people who weren't responsible for causing the fire, because protecting the innocent is always the right thing to do. 's' : ''}}. But there's one more factor to consider: the goodness of the person making the action. leadership theories, they report, are non-charismatic theories such as transformational, transactional, inspirational, and so on. Theories such as relativism, utilitarianism, egoism, deontology, the divine command theory, and the virtue ethics, are all products of Western understanding of what ethics … Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. If, on the other hand, they are discussing our ethics in terms of our 'character' or 'relationships', then they are referring to theories of being good. We usually weigh up the rights and wrongs of these small decisions fairly quickly and easily. A deontological ethical theory is one which seeks to explain the inherent rightness or wrongness of an action. The main fork in the path in Western philosophy which Traer (2013) identifies is that between deontological and teleological ethics. - Definition, Types & Factors, Lewin's 3-Stage Model of Change: Unfreezing, Changing & Refreezing, What is the Communication Process? The rule or commandments are absolute and cannot be bent or amended. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. Or is it purely the action itself (in this case, the act of giving) that is intrinsically right? If you look at the diagram in 2.1.1, you can see that ethical theories emphasising duty or rights branch off the right action path, whereas ethical theories concerning character or relationships diverge from the being good path. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. If you look at the diagram in 2.1.1, most of the words will not be new to you. Pp. Consequentialism is a practical way to address the morality of actions in the real world, but it has its limitations as well. Should I help my colleague out with getting the report in on time, even though I'd rather leave work early and join my friend for a social meeting? Basically, an action is morally justified if the person doing it is virtuous. Traer (2013) illustrates the task of understanding normative ethical traditions in terms of different paths on a mountain. A person could not act one way at home and a completely different way in public, especially civic leaders, merchants, teachers, and rulers. These are terms that you may not have come across before. Ultimately, the fire department arrives and saves everybody because this is just an introduction to philosophy and nobody needs to die in a bar fire. Who's to say what makes an action good? Let's take a look at them and see if we can answer the question, 'What is the right thing to do?'. Quiz & Worksheet - Western Theories of Ethics, Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Ethics of Care Theory: Carol Gilligan & Nel Noddings, Cultural and Ethical Considerations in Group Decision Making, TECEP Introduction to Business: Study Guide & Test Prep, Biological and Biomedical lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. imaginable degree, area of land that is: Business Ethics in Islamic Context (from the Perspective of a Muslim Business Leader). When annual EPS growth is 12, Situational ethics takes the view that ethical judgments must be made within the context of the entirety of the situation and that all normative features of a situation must be viewed as a whole, that. Retrouvez ETHICS & INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, VOL. Ethical Leadership: Eastern vs Western Perspective. We're looking at the morality of the action itself, and that's it. And that's normative ethics at work! Most of these ideas form the basis of modern-day environmental and development policy, and they are very commonly used as the basis of ethical arguments, often as a result of deductive reasoning. Log in here for access. What is ethics? There are countless ways to answers these questions, but, in this lesson, we'll look at some of the most dominant theories within Western philosophy. For one, it can often be majority-focused, leading to long-term subjugation of the minority's happiness or well-being. How does the concept of ethics change in an international environment? 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By thinking about the problematic issues surrounding these moral traditions, you can apply these critiques both to your own thinking and the arguments of others. Sociology 110: Cultural Studies & Diversity in the U.S. CPA Subtest IV - Regulation (REG): Study Guide & Practice, Positive Learning Environments in Physical Education, Curriculum Development for Physical Education, Creating Routines & Schedules for Your Child's Pandemic Learning Experience, How to Make the Hybrid Learning Model Effective for Your Child, Distance Learning Considerations for English Language Learner (ELL) Students, Roles & Responsibilities of Teachers in Distance Learning, Binyavanga Wainaina's How to Write About Africa: Summary & Analysis, Symbols in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, Wisconsin Real Estate Vacant Land Offer to Purchase Form, What is Punitive Justice? you've got a few ways to respond. Questions of morality like these generate the field of philosophy called ethics. Wilson, (2002: 53) states that the Islamic ethics as being enduring and based on holy revelation while the ethics in western theory derived from social values are more transitory in nature. The main fork in the path in Western philosophy which Traer (2013) identifies is that between deontological and teleological ethics. This is except from Utilitarianism. African people cannot be understood through such a Western based approach because it gives too much attention to internal processes within the person, autonomous of social and contextual determinants (Mkhize, 2006: 27).African psychology echoes the notion that psychologists can adopt a subjective approach when conducting research and can impose values. Furthermore, Western Ethics places more emphasis on law and justice, whereas Eastern Ethics states that one must do what is right and expected and the universe will take … These records constitute the first historical evidence of the origins of ethics. © copyright 2003-2021 Study.com. Is it wrong to lie? This is the only branch of normative ethics that really takes intention into consideration, and it also has the widest breadth. Ethics: Classical Western Texts in Feminist and Multicultural Perspectives offers students a unique introduction to ethics by integrating the historical development of Western moral philosophy with both feminist and multicultural approaches. While there are many theories of ethics in Western philosophy, they can generally be sorted into three categories. In addition to the Oath and precepts of Hippocrates, traditional medical ethics inherited this dual inextricably entwined intellectual and … It didn't matter if lying could protect someone from harm, the action of lying was unethical and, therefore, a person shouldn't lie. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. Okay, let's go over all of this by thinking about an imaginary scenario. Donald Menzel. | 21 These questions are a starting point for a brief consideration of the main traditions of Western ethical thought. Most of these debates focused on two areas: professional ethics related to the training of media professionals; and normative philosophical theories of public … How should people act? According to Kant, these categorical imperatives were the basis of ethical action because they were always true, no matter what the circumstance. Consequentialism, on the other hand, examines the morality of the consequence of an action. 234 lessons study Get this from a library! Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal What is right? What is Mill's response to the problem posed by some people's desire for virtue for its own sake? Various societies around the world and across time have found their own ways to answer these questions, and this is true of European-based societies as well. When people use deductive reasoning, they are applying a general principle to a particular situation. WESTERN PERSPECTIVE. Did you know… We have over 220 college Services. How should people act? Joseph S. Nye, Jr. - Definition & Examples, Quiz & Worksheet - The Canterbury Tales Narrative Framework, Quiz & Worksheet - Sanaubar in The Kite Runner, Quiz & Worksheet - Conflict Between Antigone & Creon in Sophocles' Antigone, Quiz & Worksheet - Questions on The Odyssey Book 9, Flashcards - Real Estate Marketing Basics, Flashcards - Promotional Marketing in Real Estate, Europe after the Decline of the Roman Empire, Quiz & Worksheet - Events at the End of the Civil War, Quiz & Worksheet - Causes of the Falklands War, Quiz & Worksheet - Types and Functions of Optical Drives, Quiz & Worksheet - Characteristics of 401(k) & Pension Plans. Kant introduced the concept of a categorical imperative into Western philosophy, which is an absolute moral requirement that must always be obeyed. Therefore, distilling environmental ethics from the world's living religions is extremely important for global conservation . credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. An error occurred trying to load this video. Create your account. Top Schools for Medical Ethics and Bioethics, Medical Ethics: Career Options and Requirements for Medical Ethicists, Online Biomedical Ethics Class and Course Information, Online Medical Ethics Courses and Classes Overview, Online Degrees in Medical Ethics: Program Options, Career Information for a Degree in Medical Ethics and Bioethics, Career Info for a Degree in Ethics for Medicine or Biology, Online Business Ethics Training Courses and Education Programs, Best Bachelor's in Homeland Security Degree Programs, Best Bachelor's Degrees in Entrepreneurship. For example, when people use the words 'duty' and 'rights', they are referring (consciously or otherwise) to theories that are concerned with right action. The word teleological is derived from two Greek words: telos, which means 'purpose' or 'goal'; and logos, which refers to 'science' or 'study'. Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. The discussion is framed by Macbeth's (2005) ethics platform in tourism research. courses that prepare you to earn The first school of thought within normative ethics is something we call deontology. The modern tendency to compartmentalize various aspects of ourselves to accommodate circumstances would have puzzled … - Definition & Examples, Crude Materials: Definition, Categorization & Examples, What is the Consumer Confidence Index? Ethics in business and society : Chinese and western perspectives. Next, the chapter discusses the ethics policies and practices at the firm level to investigate the roles of leadership, managerial culture, and ethics training in ethical business practices in China. Theories such as relativism, utilitarianism, egoism, deontology, the divine command theory, and the virtue ethics, are all products of Western understanding of what ethics are … Lanham, Md. In addition, variability in attitudes towards ethical issues among different generations is emphasized. John Stuart Mill disagrees. If you are aware of some of the theoretical conflicts between these traditions, and if you can recognise when these ethical principles are being used, this can equip you to spot inconsistencies in the arguments that you or others make. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. 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Institutions and Environmental Ethics Perspective Ankita Singh Abstract: This article analyzes the political economy, institutions and environmental ethics perspective on the Western Ghats issue to understand the problems in a greater depth and a different view. The earliest surviving writings that might be taken as ethics textbooks are a series of lists of … ', 'What are good family values?' Deontology asks whether an action is inherently right on its own without other considerations. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Who's to say what's right or wrong? succeed. While there are many theories of ethics in Western philosophy, they can generally be sorted into three categories. Once a person identifies the ideal personality traits that allow them to fulfill this purpose, they can make moral actions because they are a virtuous person. So now, when someone asks, 'What's the right thing to do?' $22.95 (paper). Pierre Hassner Western European Dilemmas: Man, State, and History...) et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. (For example, is it important to know before we donate money what percentage of our money will go to helping the needy and how much will go to paying consultants or NGO executives?) I would like to first quote Gordon Parson (Integrity in Organizations: An Alternative Business Ethic, 1995) who argued that: "There has always been a natural tension between behavior which is broadly accepted as being ethical and the imperatives of a successful business. 1, 1987 (Contents: SUPERPOWER ETHICS. All rights reserved. Why did you decide to do that act? All three are different ways of evaluating the morality of an action within Western philosophy. Background: Research in business ethics shows that individual differences can influence one’s ethical behaviour. 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